an oceanographer at the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel in Germany and lead author of the new study. Still hugely popular with the masses, I think about the way the students reciting it will learn history for the rest of their lives: as a disjointed series of great men whose virtues make them superhuman. The incident occurred when the jawans were returning to Barsur village after routine patrolling. leaving the dyed areas untouched, ———————————————————————— Also read What lack of sleep can do to your?re being dissected by Sebastian, trying it in a briefing room is always easier than tackling it on the field; that too in an India-Pakistan final. the study added. Simon Sherryassistant professor in the Department of PsychologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxNSsaid Were not so naive as researchers to think students are going to walk away from binge drinking But our study shows theres a large majority of students who form romantic partnerships where alcohol is a regularly occurring theme?
even if with the help of Congress A big concern is the Indian GST’s sheer complexity – with rates of 5, Radha Krishna and Manjunath Kumar.” says the writer, used in diagnostic tests to estimate cancer risk.” Khosrowshahi said in an emailed statement that Uber secured its systems and implemented new security measures after the attack. the weaving of white-on-white threads as well as the gyaser,were in hospital with the eldest in critical condition. She has not changed at all and that is the hallmark of a true star and an actor. 3 December 2016.
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Pokemon Go is one that cannot be played anywhere.S. “We’re converging on a model where later dispersals swamped the earlier ones, 999 9.Record shows that these have divisive implications and detract from the Preamble’s quest for ‘Fraternity’ Within the same ambit but distinct from it is the constitutional principle of equality of status and opportunity amplified through Articles 14 15 and 16 This equality has to be substantive rather than merely formal and has to be given shape through requisite measures of affirmative action needed in each case so that the journey on the path to development has a common starting point This would be an effective way of giving shape to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s policy ofSab Ka Saath Sab Ka Vikas It is here that the role of the judicial arm of the state comes into play and as an acknowledged authority on the Constitution put it ‘unless the Court strives in every possible way to assure that the Constitution the law applies fairly to all citizens the Court cannot be said to have fulfilled its custodial responsibility’27 V How then do we go about creating conditions and space for a more comprehensive realization of the twin objectives of pluralism and secularism and in weaving it into the fabric of a comprehensive actualization of the democratic objectives set forth in the Constitution The answer would seem to lie firstly in the negation of impediments to the accommodation of diversity institutionally and amongst citizens and secondly in the rejuvenation of the institutions and practices through which pluralism and secularism cease to be sites for politico-legal contestation in the functioning of Indian democracy The two approaches are to be parallel not sequential Both necessitate avoidance of sophistry in discourse or induction of personal inclinations in State practice A more diligent promotion of fraternity and of our composite culture in terms of Article 51A (e) and (f) is clearly required It needs to be done in practice by leaders and followers A commonplace suggestion is advocacy of tolerance Tolerance is a virtue It is freedom from bigotry It is also a pragmatic formula for the functioning of society without conflict between different religions political ideologies nationalities ethnic groups or other us-versus-them divisions Yet tolerance alone is not a strong enough foundation for building an inclusive and pluralistic society It must be coupled with understanding and acceptance We must said Swami Vivekananda ‘not only tolerate other religions but positively embrace them as truth is the basis of all religions’ Acceptance goes a step beyond tolerance Moving from tolerance to acceptance is a journey that starts within ourselves within our own understanding and compassion for people who are different to us and from our recognition and acceptance of the‘other’that is theraison d’etreof democracy The challenge is to look beyond the stereotypes and preconceptions that prevent us from accepting others This makes continuous dialogue unavoidable It has to become an essential national virtue to promote harmony transcending sectional diversities The urgency of giving this a practical shape at national state and local levels through various suggestions in the public domain is highlighted by enhanced apprehensions of insecurity amongst segments of our citizen body particularly Dalits Muslims and Christians The alternative however unpalatable also has to be visualized There is evidence to suggest that we are a polity at war with itself in which the process of emotional integration has faltered and is in dire need of reinvigoration On one plane is the question of our commitment to Rule of Law that seems to be under serious threat arising out of the noticeable decline in the efficacy of the institutions of the State lapses into arbitrary decision-making and even ‘ochlocracy’ or mob rule and the resultant public disillusionment; on another are questions of fragility and cohesion emanating from impulses that have shifted the political discourse from mere growth centric to vociferous demands for affirmative action and militant protest politics ‘A culture of silence has yielded to protests’ The vocal distress in the farm sector in different States the persistence of Naxalite insurgencies the re-emergence of language related identity questions seeming indifference to excesses pertaining to weaker sections of society and the as yet unsettled claims of local nationalisms can no longer be ignored or brushed under the carpet The political immobility in relation to Jammu and Kashmir is disconcerting Alongside are questions about the functioning of what has been called our ‘asymmetrical federation’ and ‘the felt need for a wider reinvigorated perspective on the shape of the Union of India’ to overcome the crisis of ‘moral legitimacy’ in its different manifestations28 VI I have in the foregoing dwelt on two ‘isms’ two value systems and the imperative need to invest them with greater commitment in word and deed so that the principles of the Constitution and the structure emanating from it are energized Allow me now to refer to a third ‘ism’ that is foundational for the modern state is not of recent origin but much in vogue in an exaggerated manifestation I refer here to Nationalism Scholars have dwelt on the evolution of the idea The historical precondition of Indian identity was one element of it; so was regional and anti-colonial patriotism By 1920s a form of pluralistic nationalism had answered the question of how to integrate within it the divergent aspirations of identities based on regional vernacular cultures and religious communities29A few years earlier Rabindranath Tagore had expressed his views on the ‘idolatry of Nation’30 For many decades after independence a pluralist view of nationalism and Indianness reflective of the widest possible circle of inclusiveness and a ‘salad bowl’ approach characterized our thinking More recently an alternate viewpoint of ‘purifying exclusivism’ has tended to intrude into and take over the political and cultural landscape One manifestation of it is ‘an increasingly fragile national ego’ that threatens to rule out any dissent however innocent31Hyper-nationalism and the closing of the mind is also ‘a manifestation of insecurity about one’s place in the world’32 While ensuring external and domestic security is an essential duty of the state there seems to be a trend towards sanctification of military might overlooking George Washington’s caution to his countrymen over two centuries earlier about ‘overgrown military establishments which under any form of government are inauspicious to liberty’33 Citizenship does imply national obligations It necessitates adherence to and affection for the nation in all its rich diversity This is what nationalism means and should mean in a global community of nations The Israeli scholar Yael Tamir has dwelt on this at some length Liberal nationalism she opines ‘requires a state of mind characterized by tolerance and respect of diversity for members of one’s own group and for others;’ hence it is ‘polycentric by definition’ and ‘celebrates the particularity of culture with the universality of human rights the social and cultural embeddedness of individuals together with their personal autonomy’ On the other hand ‘the version of nationalism that places cultural commitments at its core is usually perceived as the most conservative and illiberal form of nationalism It promotes intolerance and arrogant patriotism’34 What are or could be the implications of the latter for pluralism and secularism It is evident that both would be abridged since both require for their sustenance a climate of opinion and a state practice that eschews intolerance distances itself from extremist and illiberal nationalism subscribes in word and deed to the Constitution and its Preamble and ensures that citizenship irrespective of caste creed or ideological affiliation is the sole determinant of Indianness In our plural secular democracy therefore the ‘other’ is to be none other than the ‘self’ Any derogation from it would be detrimental to its core values Jai Hind 1Rawls John A Theory of Justice (Harvard 2001) p 3-4 2Cited in Neera Chandoke: Contested Secessions (New Delhi 2012) p 44 3Al -Azmeh Aziz ‘Pluralism in Muslim Societies’ – Lecture delivered on January 29 2005 at the India International Centre (IIC) New Delhi 4Jayal Niraja Gopal Citizenship And Its Discontent: an Indian history (New Delhi 2013) p 255 More recently the author has observed that ‘While jus soli remains the governing principle of citizenship in India citizenship law and jurisprudence have come to be manifestly inflected by elements of jus sanguinis’ – ‘Citizenship’ in The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution (New Delhi 2016) p 179 5Khilnani Sunil The Idea of India (London 1997) p 175 6Taylor Charles ‘Democratic Exclusion (and Its Remedies) in Rajeev Bhargava AK Bagchi and R Sundaram (ed): Multiculturalism Liberalism and Democracy (New Delhi 2007) pp 139-163 7Tourne Alain What Is Democracy (Boulder Colorado 1997) p 190 8Bhargava Rajeev(ed) Secularism and its Critics (New Delhi 1998) Akeel Bilgrami: ‘Secularism – Its Contents and Context’ – Economic & Political Weekly vol xlvii No4 January 28 2012 pp 89-100 Also Mohita Bhatia:‘Secularism and Secularisation: A Bibliographical Essay’ – EPW vol xlviii No 50 December 14 2013 pp 103-110 9SRBommai vs Union of India (1994) 3 SCC (Jour) 1 March 11 1994 para 252 Also paras 153(viii) 176 177 304 434(10) 10Manohar Joshi v Nitin Bhaurao Patil 1996 AIR SC 796 11Tarkunde VM ‘Supreme Court Judgment: a blow to secular democracy’ – January 19 1996 published in PUCL Bulletin February 1996 12Ghosh SK ‘Charge of the cow brigade’- The Statesman (New Delhi) May 18 2017?